Life is herein defined as an aggregating force (negative entropic) responsible for replicating information and the phenomenon of EMERGENCE.  It is the force that evolved the replication of coded macromolecules.  A force that can be described using open system based equations of the second law of thermodynamics, density dependent versions of the Lotka-Voltera equations, and modeled by dissipation driven adaptive organization.

The evolution of Life  starts with  ATOMS which  arose through:

1. Baryogenesis 300 Million years after the big bang,

2. Stellar Nucleogenesis, and

3. Merging Neutron Star based Nucleosynthesis.

Polymerizations  and other abiotic biochemistries  lead to creation of Graphene , Buckyballs,  and  Corrin derived based enzymatic  cofactors  . Molecular Clouds in interstellar Space may have been the location of early non-protein enzymes cofactor syntheses. Vitamin Like Cofactors bound to Ur peptides and provided enhanced enzymatic versatility to produce enhanced energy conversion from biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions  feed by  beta electrons from radioactivity, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, an visible light.

Mixtures of Nutrients and Cofactors evolved into  Metabolic Networks consisting of  GADV-Proteins, PAHs  and subsequently  Peptide-RNA polymers or RNA only . These polymers evolved within  Montmorillonite Clay, Iron-Sulfur,  and /or Zinc precipitated environments on hydrothermal vents within proto-earth , planetismals, or inside  cosmic spherules .

It is  unknown if the Polymer worlds evolved from a  metabolism first system , replicon first and/or hybrid process .

RNA based life most likely evolved prior to DNA based life.   Nucleobases for RNA/DNA  include purines  (ie,  adenine, inosine, and guanine ) that hydrogen bond with pyrimidines ( cytosine, thymine, and uracil ) and   polymerize with ribose or other precursors to form ProtoRNA strand and  hairpin loops .  Deamination of adenine with NO (Nitric Oxide bubbled up from Dissolved Iron reacting with Water and Nitrous Oxide) produces inosine  while deamination of cytosine with NO produces uracil .  Gas bubbles created the first protocells containing concentrated concentrations of nucleobases within lipid membranes micells.

Current evidence exists for the presence of  life on Earth  4.2 Billion years ago.  There are also theoretical calculations which propose  that the Last universal common ancestor of cellular life (LUCA) had  DNA sequences which would  require an origin of the genetic code to have been 9.7 ± 2.7 billion years ago. (longer than the existence of earth)

Cellular Life responds to destructive forces (physical and biological) by activating mobile genetic elements to create protective /defensive proteins and RNA.  Mobile Genetic Elements are agents of Darwinian variation  and they interact with  hosts,  infectious predators and cosmic-climatic-geochemical events. Continuous interaction promotes consortia development  between mobile elements and their hosts  resulting in the evolution of   complex organisms and ecosystems. Koonin’s model views these forces as  being driven by parasite/anti defense systems  or the availability of resources “public goods”.

Life’s  Transitions .