Framework : Prokaryotic Cell Evolution
I speculate that ProCells arose on Inner Ort comets, minor planets, Theia and ProtoEarth . They transformed into Precells after impacts of a Titan-like Theia and hydrophobic Late Heavy Bombardment Worlds. The physiochemistry of Hadean Earth allowed Precells to evolve into Prokaryocytes (Archaea followed by Eubacteria). Subsequent symbioses of Prokaryocytes and Viruses created Eukaryocytes .
The Archaea evolved from Methane producing Eocytes while Eubacteria evolved from Acetate producing Korarchaea. Lipid membranes changed due to evolution in different redox, temperature, hydrophobic, and Cobalt concentration environments. However, transcription, translation , and the genetic code have a common inheritance.
The first Eubacteria were Acetothermus like cells that evolved from Archaic Thermoplasmatales. Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrogen based autotrophy was their earliest means of growth. The Autotrophs diversified into various electron donor and acceptor types (chemo-inorganic/litho, chemo-organic, and phototrophic). Subsequently, Heterotrophs evolved from Chemo-organic Autotrophs and created predation based ecosystems. Predation resulted in symbiotic events marked by turning points in evolution. ( Such as monoderm to diderm transitions, evolution of cyanobacteria, and viral endosymbiotic events.) Archaic Heterotrophs subsequently evolved into Proterozoic Autotrophs through DNA transpositions and secondary/ tertiary symbiotic events.
.Prokaryotic evolution was impacted by bacteriophage based elements and prokaryote-prokaryote symbioses. Mobile genetic elements were responsible for the origin and evolution of higher complexity. Natural Selection from temperature, humidity, and radiation fluctuations interacted with mobile genetic element based radiations to evolve new elements and prokaryotic cells.
The Archaic time period of prokaryotic evolution was marked by dramatic changes in the Methane, Sulfur-Sulfide-Sulfate, Oxygen, Carbon Monoxide-Dioxide, Nitrogen-Nitrate, and Metal (Mn, Zn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ca, Mg, Mo, Strontium, Tungsten, Ag, Au, Hg ) levels of the atmosphere and oceans. A model of prokaryotic evolution is needed that matches the earth's mineral and gas historic patterns with the Microbiome's of those periods. Such a model can be constructed by looking at metabolic operons and their evolutionary presence. The horizontal transfer of these operons is mediated by viral elements and potentially delivered from cosmic sources.
Most Recent Model based on multiple genes:
Cellular life forms are like Matryoshka/Babushka Dolls that show the history of our earliest ancestors in the center and novel life forms in the periphery. The history of the conversion of free living life forms to free living parasites, symbionts, and agents of genetic change shows a helical evolutionary pattern. The mobile genetic elements show a Mirror in Mirror display of newer genetic elements nesting in the center of older genetic elements . This nesting phenomenon is exemplified by insertion sequences in archaea and the insertion history of DNA transposons. The encapsulation processes work in tandem with the integration processes to evolve life. Analysis of twintrons, symbioses, and other forms of nesting will help unravel the amazing pathways of evolution.
What cellular life form developed first on Earth?
Did monoderm prokaryotes evolve into diderms or vice versa ?
How did mobile genetic elements effect the origin and evolution of prokaryotes?
How did the physiochemistry of our Solar System, atmosphere , hydrosphere, and crust evolve life ?
Proc Natl Acad
Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11;109(50):20537-42.
Epub 2012 Nov 26.
Narasingarao, Priya , Podell, Sheila, Ugalde, Juan A, Brochier-Armanet,
Celine, Emerson, Joanne B, Brocks, Jochen J , Heidelberg, Karla B ,
Banfield, Jillian F , Allen, Eric E
Rohit Ghai, Lejla Pašic, Ana Beatriz Fernández, Ana-Belen Martin-Cuadrado, Carolina Megumi Mizuno, Katherine D. McMahon, R. Thane Papke, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Beltran Rodriguez-Brito, Forest Rohwer, Cristina Sánchez-Porro, Antonio Ventosa & Francisco Rodríguez-Valera New Abundant Microbial Groups in Aquatic Hypersaline Environments Scientific Reports 1, Article number: 135 Received 22 August 2011 Accepted 10 October 2011 Published 31 October 2011
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