Framework : Procells to Precells


Coacervates arose prior to Precells. They are the first cyclical metabolic systems and evolved with solar system collisions. Formic Acid and Cyanide provided the raw material for polymerized byproducts. While Phosphate, Zinc, Magnesium, Copper,Molybdenum, Sulfur and Iron influenced the choice of metabolic pathways.

Precells evolved from Coacervates based ProCells after further accretions of early solar system bodies.

1. Proteinocytes/ Proteoids were the first life forms to replicate through non ribosome protein synthesis. They encapsulized the coacervates/ proteinoid microspheres with pseudomurein. and may have evolved from Buckyballs containing Polymerized Hydrogen and Metal Atoms.

Examples of Proteinocytes include :

Bacterial Vesicles / Organelles- Potential PreCellular Life Forms


Cell Biology of Prokaryotic Organelles

Self-recognition mechanism of MamA, a magnetosome-associated TPR-containing protein, promotes complex assembly


Cell Biology of Prokaryotic Organelles

A spatial model of the chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the position of the Cytochrome bc1 complex

Proteomic characterization of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 photosynthetic membrane: identification of new proteins


Cell Biology of Prokaryotic Organelles


Cell Biology of Prokaryotic Organelles

Polyphosphate granules/Volutin granules/acidocalcisomes

Elements involved in the biogenesis of these vesicles include: vacuolar proton pyrophasphatase AP-3, and rab 11, polyP kinases (ppks), polyP-dependent glucokinases (ppgks), phosphate transporters (pits), ppx gene for exopolyphosphatase, phaABC genes polyP kinases (ppks), two polyP-dependent glucokinases (ppgks)for PHA synthesis , actP gene for acetate/H+ symporter.

Unusual polyphosphate inclusions observed in a marine Beggiatoa strain

Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Complex Mediates the Biogenesis of Acidocalcisomes and Is Essential for Growth and Virulence of Trypanosoma brucei

Evolution of vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase domains and volutin granules: clues into the early evolutionary origin of the acidocalcisome

Deciphering the Genome of Polyphosphate Accumulating Actinobacterium Microlunatus phosphovorus

Volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic compartments and have physiological and structural characteristics similar to acidocalcisomes


Mg, Ca, Strontium, and Barium Carbonate Nanoballs in Cyanobacteria

hypothesized functions:

1. Protection from Gamma , Xrays, and UV radiation ? contain RNA or DNA

2. Photosynthesis using Gamma Rays and Xrays

3. Motility Organelle : ie. Balasts for positioning in the hydrological goldilox zone

4. Chemolithotrophy involving free radical oxygen.

5. Organization of the formative electron transport chain

6. Storage of Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen for macromolecular biosynthesis.

7. Chemosensory organ


Nitrate Vacuoles

Vacuolated Beggiatoa-like filaments from different hypersaline environments form a novel genus.

Secretin Structures

Secretins: dynamic channels for protein transport across membranes

Sulfur Granules

Gas Vacuoles

Pre-contractile Vacuole


Bicarbonate producing Organelles


ATP Sequestration by a Synthetic ATP-Binding Protein Leads to Novel Phenotypic Changes in Escherichia coli

Secreted membrane vesicles

Gram-positive bacteria produce membrane vesicles: proteomics-based characterization of Staphylococcus aureus-derived membrane vesicles.

Membrane vesicle release in bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea: a conserved yet underappreciated aspect of microbial life

Evolution of diverse cell division and vesicle formation systems in Archaea.

Crenarchaeal CdvA Forms Double-Helical Filaments Containing DNA and Interacts with ESCRT-III-Like CdvB





2. Inteinocytes are PreRNA based Proteinocytes and replicate through non ribososme protein synthesis. Inteinocytes contain self and non self splicing inteins. They have not yet evolved messenger RNAs but have Ribozymes, Riboswitches, Group I and II Introns, pretRNAs , preRibosomal RNAs, and other non coding RNAs.

3. Transpocytes are RNA based proteinocytes. They have a peptidyl transfer system that utilizes RNA ligation and polymerization enzymes, polyketide synthesis, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and ubiquitin conjugation systems .. The ribosomal system is still evoling along with RNA replication/transcription systems.

RNA transpocytes are inteinocytes with replicative RNA

DNA transpocytes are inteinocytes with replicative RNA and DNA

4. Chronocytes/Virocytes are transpocytes with lipid membranes and transitional RNA/DNA genetic storage systems. They Operate with specific operons for hyperthermophilic, mesophilic, and psychrophilic environments. Their genomes are primarly RNA based.

5. Eocytes containing DNA and multiple types of membranes gave rise to Prokaryotes and followed by Eukaryocytes. They were Possibly delivered to early Earth during the Theia impact and the late heavy bombardment. They may also have been present on other solar system bodies.


The formation of vault-tubes: a dynamic interaction between vaults and vault PARP

The role of biomacromolecular crowding, ionic strength, and physicochemical gradients in the complexities of life's emergence.

Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.

Structural Analysis of CsoS1A and the Protein Shell of the Halothiobacillus neapolitanus Carboxysome


Organization, structure, and assembly of alpha-carboxysomes determined by electron cryotomography of intact cells.



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