Framework : Geobiology (under development)

Ref: A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land

Pre Earth Formation Processes

I. Formation of Proplyd in a Star Cluster Cloud.

II. Circumstellar Disk Formed

III. Undifferentiated planetisimals

IV. Differentiated planetisimals

V. Major Inner Planets

VI Major Outer Planets:

VII Planetary Migration Episode



Formation of the Earth and Moon in Layers.

( Inner Core, Outer Core, Inner Mantel, Outer Mantel, and Crust )


It is estimated that protoplanet Earth had a differntiated core,mantel, and crust within 30 million years of Proplyd formation. Matter on ProtoEarth would have been exposed to infrared radiation from the Protosun as well as high energy gamma, cosmic, UV, and xrays from Extrasolar system Sources. The infrared radiation would have provided some stable zones of hydrocarbon and water phase transitions.

Numerous supernovas would have occured in our nearby Star Cluster and therefore modern cellular based life forms would have had a difficult physiochemical environment for existence. However, other forms of life utilized these high energy opportunities to convert energy into the work required for organization of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, and metal ion molecules into ProtoCells. The amount of energy required for this conversion can be theoretically estimated using Information Theory. The estimation can then be used to provide timeline for the energy to entropy conversion steps during ProtoCell Development. The exact nature of those steps can be further elucidated.

Theia and ProtoEarth Collided 4.5 Billion Years Ago. ref 1, 2 .Earth had an iron core at the time of collision but the core of Theia is not yet known. However, Theia is believed to have formed further away from the Sun and therefore would have contained more volatile gases such as water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Evidence for the Great Impact Hypothesis comes from simulations, earth & moon gravity maps, and zinc isotope analysis.

Zircons suggest Earth's Crust and Hydrosphere formed after an impact 4.4 Billion years ago. Evidence of a prior crust and hydrosphere is currenty not available but is modeled by some simulations.


Current Gravity Map of Earth. Can you see the scars of impacts ?


Gravity Maps of the moon. Scars from prior impacts more readily visible.


Primordial soup or vinaigrette: did the RNA world evolve at acidic pH? . Hadean Earth acidic oceans 4.2-3.8 Ba

Late Heavy Bombardment 3.85 -3.95 Billion years ago with temperatue spike on Earth.

Wikipedia reference on Late Heavy Bombardment

Impact Events delivered precious metals, water, and new gene families.

Mineral evolution on Earth is related to the Birth and Death of Gene Families.

General Geobiology Model:


Tectonic Plate Models:


Vaalbara Supercontinent is believed to have formed 2.7 Ba along with or including a possible UR continent. Evidence exists for a biogenic land based sulfur oxidation process existing at that time. This suggest the presence of some minimal oxygen possibly from symbiotic cyanobacteria.

Breakup of Columbia/Nuna Supercontinent 1.30 -1.20 Ba


Models of Temperature, CO2, and Sea Level History

Ref 1.

Atmospheric Oxygen Levels

Eukaryot Cell. 2011 July; 10(7): 856–868.
doi: 10.1128/EC.00326-10
Do Red and Green Make Brown?: Perspectives on Plastid Acquisitions within Chromalveolates Richard G. Dorrell* and Alison G. Smith



Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular fossil record of Archean life
Jacob R. Waldbauer Dianne K. Newman, and Roger E. Summons

Atmospheric Ozone Levels

Atmospheric Hydrogen, Helium, Argon, and Nitrogen Levels

Nickle starvation in oceans at 2.7B years ago. Nickle release during Permian Extinction from Siberian Flats with increased Methanobacteria activity.

Linking Trace Metal Availability and Nitrogenase Evolution: Influence of the Late-Archean Marine Nickel Famine on the Emergence of Molybdenum-Based Nitrogen Fixation

Geophysical Sulfur Cycles mobilizing molybdenum, zinc, cobalt, and iron,

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land 2.7ba


Neobium concentrations in Crust

Sodium, Postassium, Phosphate, Chloride, Iodide, Fluoride, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Boron, Chromium, Ammonia,Hydrocarbon

Mineral Concetrations in Core, Mantle, and Crust

Nitrate Levels in Ice Cores

Carbon Isotope Levels

Hydrogen Isotope Levels : High level of protons during 3.4 Gya with decrease in H/D ratio over time. ( Proposed Loss of H to Space via methanogenesis)

Oxygen Isotope Levels

Argon Isotope Levels

Uranium Concentrations in the Crust

Gold Crust Concentrstions

Silver Crust Concentrations

Earths potential history of exposure to supernovas and cosmic rays.

Comparisons to Mars

No methane, but evidence for a far thicker Martian atmosphere
Isotope ratios suggest that lots of Mars' atmosphere escaped into space

nifH archea.


Climate regulation and atmosphere evolution

The Hadean-Archaean Environment

Stanford Report, November 11, 2009
Stanford study: Earth's early ocean cooled more than a billion years earlier than thought

Large Scale Ocean Circulation from Grace

New Spin on the Origin of the Earth and Moon

Gravitational Anomoly in Sri Lanka

Concentrically zoned pattern in the Bouguer gravity anomaly map of northeastern North America

Development of the negative gravity anomaly of the 85°E Ridge, northeastern Indian Ocean – A process oriented modelling approach

The Indian ocean gravity low: Evidence for an isostatically uncompensated depression in the upper mantle

Asteroidal impacts and the origin of terrestrial and lunar volatiles
Icarus, Volume 222, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 44-52
Francis Albarede, Chris Ballhaus, Janne Blichert-Toft, Cin-Ty Lee, Bernard Marty, Frédéric Moynier, Qing-Zhu Yin