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Vitamin B-5 (d-pantothenic acid )

 How much do I need ?

Your personalized daily requirement depends on your intestinal flora's production , absorption capability, assimilation capability, energy expenditure, age, genetic profile, pregnancy or lactation status, lean muscle weight, percent body fat, and amount eliminated in your excretions (ie. urine + feces + semen/menstruation). The minimum recognized as adequate doses are listed below:

  • Men and women age 19 and over: 5 milligrams
  • Pregnant women age 19-50: 6 milligrams
  • Lactating women age 19-50: 7 milligrams

Why is it required ?

  • Pantothenic acid is an oily, fat and water soluble, essential nutrient thas is required by all living cells. Bacteria, plants, and other organisms are able to produce it but humans and other mammals must rely on food or intestinal bacteria. The amount of prodution from intestinal bacteria varies depending on the quantity and types of bacteria in the large instestine, the amount of aspartate, ketovalerate, and other colonic nutrients available to the instestinal flora, and the use of antibiotics or alcohol.
  • This nutrient is the main building block of an essential cofactor called Coenzyme A. The production of this essential cofactor requires 5 essential proteins (SMVT, PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT-DPCK). The first step in its use is transport of this nutrient along with 2 sodium atoms into the cell via the Sodium Dependent Multivitamin Transporter SMVT. This step is followed by the placement of a phosphate molecule by pantothenic acid kinase -PANK using GTP or ATP plus Magnesium. Subsequently an enzyme designated PPCS combines the amino acid cysteine with the phosphopantothenic acid and CTP/ATP to produce phosphopantanolycysteine. This product is then converted to phosphopantatheine by PPCDC followed by conversion to dephosphoCoA and Coenzyme A via the enzyme PPAT-DPCK and the use of ATP.
  • 4% of all known enzymes use Coenzyme A as a cofactor.
  • Some of the more important enzymatic processes include the break down and use of carbohydrates and fats. (ie. glycogenolysis, glycolysis, lipolysis, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta oxidation, and the TCA energy producing cycle )
  • Coenzyme A is also necessary for production of steroid hormones and cholesterol
  • Coenzyme A works in concert with many other vitamins
  • Coenzyme A is necessary for normal growth and development

What happens if the body does not get enough? (Deficiency Signs and Symptoms)

  • It is difficult to become deficient in pantothenic acid because the body has evolved efficient methods of storing this nutrient as pantothenic acid -acyl carrier protein complexes and recycling this vitamin from dead cells and via transport methods in the kidney. However tissue specific deficiencies may arise during high growth periods. Furthermore, mammals that are experimentally made deficient of vitamin B5 show a wide range of multiple organ system problems.
  • Deficiencies during uterine growth are associated with prenatal mortality .
  • Deficiences during prenatal and postnatal periods are associated with altered growth and maturation of the small intestines.
  • Deficiencies in the brain are associated with impaired motor response and nuerodegeneration (brain cell death).
  • Deficiences in the bone marrow are associated with impaired heme synthesis, anemia, and low white blood cell counts
  • Deficiencies in the skin have been reported to be associated with Acne Vulgaris and increased sebum secretion . However, this finding remains to be confirmed.

What bad things happen if you take too much ? (ie. Toxicities)

  • The use of large quantities (ie. more than 1 gram) of Calcium pantothenate has been associated with gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, bloating, and intestinal cramps. Some people also report a skin flushing sensation with large doses.
  • There are no known fatalities from excessive doses of pantothenic acid.( Probably because its absorption requires active transport by the intestinal epithelial cells and thus exessive amounts of this nutrient are eliminated in the feces )
Food Sources (listed in decreasing order of food content per standard serving)
  • Whole grains, legumes, some vegetables and fruits, organ meats (liver, heart, etc.), yeast, and egg yolk

  • d-Calcium pantothenate: 25kg of powder, $450.00 Requested units
  • Ambromeal : with1 day of d-Calcium pantothenate: not less than 50mg :$20.00 Requested units

    Author: Foster P. Carr MD © 2002 Telemedical.com Inc, All rights reserrved , This page was last updated May 15, 2002