How much do I need
Your personalized daily requirement depends on your intestinal flora's
production , absorption capability, assimilation capability, energy
expenditure, age, genetic profile, pregnancy or lactation status, lean
muscle weight, percent body fat, and amount eliminated in your excretions
(ie. urine + feces + semen/menstruation). The minimum recognized as
adequate doses are listed below:
- Men and women age 19 and over: 5 milligrams
- Pregnant women age 19-50: 6 milligrams
- Lactating women age 19-50: 7 milligrams
Why is it required ?
- Pantothenic acid is an oily, fat and water soluble, essential nutrient
thas is required by all living cells. Bacteria, plants, and other
organisms are able to produce it but humans and other mammals must
rely on food or intestinal bacteria. The amount of prodution from
intestinal bacteria varies depending on the quantity and types of
bacteria in the large instestine, the amount of aspartate, ketovalerate,
and other colonic nutrients available to the instestinal flora, and
the use of antibiotics or alcohol.
- This nutrient is the main building block of an essential cofactor
called Coenzyme A. The production of this essential cofactor requires
5 essential proteins (SMVT, PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT-DPCK). The first
step in its use is transport of this nutrient along with 2 sodium
atoms into the cell via the Sodium Dependent Multivitamin Transporter
SMVT. This step is followed by the placement of a phosphate molecule
by pantothenic acid kinase -PANK using GTP or ATP plus Magnesium.
Subsequently an enzyme designated PPCS combines the amino acid cysteine
with the phosphopantothenic acid and CTP/ATP to produce phosphopantanolycysteine.
This product is then converted to phosphopantatheine by PPCDC followed
by conversion to dephosphoCoA and Coenzyme A via the enzyme PPAT-DPCK
and the use of ATP.
- 4% of all known enzymes use Coenzyme A as a cofactor.
- Some of the more important enzymatic processes include the break
down and use of carbohydrates and fats. (ie. glycogenolysis, glycolysis,
lipolysis, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta oxidation, and the TCA
energy producing cycle )
- Coenzyme A is also necessary for production of steroid hormones
- Coenzyme A works in concert with many other vitamins
- Coenzyme A is necessary for normal growth and development
What happens if the body does not get enough? (Deficiency
Signs and Symptoms)
- It is difficult to become deficient in pantothenic acid because
the body has evolved efficient methods of storing this nutrient as
pantothenic acid -acyl carrier protein complexes and recycling this
vitamin from dead cells and via transport methods in the kidney. However
tissue specific deficiencies may arise during high growth periods.
Furthermore, mammals that are experimentally made deficient of vitamin
B5 show a wide range of multiple organ system problems.
- Deficiencies during uterine growth are associated with prenatal
- Deficiences during prenatal and postnatal periods are associated
with altered growth and maturation of the small intestines.
- Deficiencies in the brain are associated with impaired motor response
and nuerodegeneration (brain cell death).
- Deficiences in the bone marrow are associated with impaired heme
synthesis, anemia, and low white blood cell counts
- Deficiencies in the skin have been reported to be associated with
Acne Vulgaris and increased sebum secretion . However, this finding
remains to be confirmed.
What bad things happen if you take too much ? (ie. Toxicities)
Food Sources (listed in decreasing order of food content per standard
- The use of large quantities (ie. more than 1 gram) of Calcium pantothenate
has been associated with gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea,
bloating, and intestinal cramps. Some people also report a skin flushing
sensation with large doses.
- There are no known fatalities from excessive doses of pantothenic
acid.( Probably because its absorption requires active transport by
the intestinal epithelial cells and thus exessive amounts of this
nutrient are eliminated in the feces )
- Whole grains, legumes, some vegetables and fruits, organ meats (liver,
heart, etc.), yeast, and egg yolk